Medio Oriente (Siria, Libano, Giordania, Iraq)

I conflitti armati in corso e del recente passato hanno creato in Medio Oriente una situazione caratterizzata da notevoli esigenze umanitarie. La Svizzera invia aiuti e fornisce servizi a tutela della popolazione colpita dalla violenza ed è attivamente coinvolta nella promozione della pace e nella prevenzione dei conflitti. Si adopera inoltre per garantire una gestione sostenibile dell’acqua, un’istruzione di qualità e la creazione di opportunità di reddito per i profughi, gli sfollati nella regione, i migranti più vulnerabili e le comunità ospitanti in Iraq, Giordania, Libano, Siria e Turchia.

Cartina della regione del Medio Oriente (Siria, Libano, Giordania, Iraq)

Il Medio Oriente resta al centro dell’attenzione internazionale e la Svizzera vi si impegna attivamente. I conflitti presenti e passati hanno provocato violazioni dei diritti umani e del diritto internazionale umanitario. Dal 2011 la crisi siriana ha sconvolto le vite di almeno 12 milioni di persone. Più di 5,5 milioni di siriani sono registrati come profughi negli Stati vicini (Libano, Giordania, Turchia e Iraq) e 6 milioni sono ancora sfollati all’interno del Paese. Il numero di persone che ritornano in Siria è molto ridotto. Circa mezzo milione di persone sono state uccise e molte altre sono scomparse o detenute. L’Iraq sta passando da una fase di emergenza a una fase di ripresa. Tuttavia, all’interno del Paese circa 1,6 milioni di persone non sono ancora rientrate nelle loro case e quasi 7 milioni hanno bisogno di assistenza umanitaria. Il protrarsi di questa situazione continua a pesare sulle comunità e i Governi ospitanti. 

L’obiettivo principale della Svizzera in Medio Oriente è creare un ambiente sicuro per le persone colpite dai conflitti e altri gruppi vulnerabili, salvando vite umane e rafforzando la comunità, riducendo la fragilità e creando prospettive di sviluppo. A livello politico la Svizzera promuove il buongoverno e il rispetto dei diritti umani, compresi i diritti dei profughi, e del diritto internazionale umanitario. Sostiene inoltre le attività di prevenzione e trasformazione dei conflitti.

Protezione e migrazione

Protezione delle persone più vulnerabili e colpite dal conflitto in Siria

In Siria il conflitto armato in corso ha costretto oltre 6 milioni di persone a lasciare il loro luogo di origine e a spostarsi all’interno del proprio Paese. In media, dall’inizio della crisi, le persone coinvolte sono state costrette due o tre volte a un esodo forzato, il che ha aumentato la loro vulnerabilità. Queste persone particolarmente vulnerabili hanno bisogno di un alloggio, acqua potabile, scuole e altri servizi. La Svizzera sostiene queste famiglie offrendo contributi in denaro e formazione in modo che possano sopperire ai loro bisogni primari.

Prevenzione delle catastrofi, aiuto d’emergenza, ricostruzione e protezione

Acqua e igiene

Migliorare l’accesso all’acqua e ai servizi igienico-sanitari nella valle della Beqa’, Libano

Il Libano ospita più di un milione di profughi siriani. La pressione sulle risorse naturali, come l’acqua, è quindi molto elevata. Nella valle della Beqa’, al confine con la Siria, la DSC sostiene le autorità locali preposte al monitoraggio delle risorse idriche e delle acque reflue. La DSC collabora con il Bekaa Water Establishment per fornire acqua pulita e sicura alle comunità ospitanti e ai profughi siriani che vivono nella valle.

L’aqua

Istruzione di base e formazione professionale

MigliorareMigliorare la qualità e promuovere sistemi di istruzione inclusivi

I conflitti e i movimenti di sfollati hanno influito molto negativamente sulle economie locali già fragili. La Svizzera mira a ridurne l’impatto economico garantendo un accesso equo all’istruzione e alle fonti di reddito. Attraverso il rafforzamento delle capacità a livello nazionale punta a migliorare l’apprendimento nei bambini, a far sì che possano sfruttare appieno le loro potenzialità e a incentivare il completamento dell’istruzione obbligatoria. Con il sostegno ad attività che generano reddito e al settore privato, e la creazione di un quadro giuridico che permetta di avere entrate dignitose intende migliorare le prospettive di vita sia per le donne che per gli uomini. Includendo sia i profughi che le comunità ospitanti, questo approccio rafforza la coesione sociale e cerca di prevenire ulteriori violenze.

Istruzione di base e formazione professionale

Promozione della pace e prevenzione dei conflitti

Creare le condizioni per la pace e la riconciliazione

L’obiettivo della Svizzera è affrontare le cause profonde della violenza e prevenire così i conflitti. La Svizzera si adopera inoltre per la pace tentando di ripristinare le relazioni e le infrastrutture sociali indispensabili per rispondere ai bisogni di tutta la popolazione e cercando di individuare una soluzione ai conflitti. Sostiene quindi processi che includono attori statali e non statali a livello nazionale e delle comunità locali e lavora per costruire un contesto giuridico e politico solido.

Approccio e partner

Le cause dei lunghi conflitti mediorientali e le loro interrelazioni richiedono una risposta regionale. Con un approccio «Whole of Government» la Direzione dello sviluppo e della cooperazione (DSC), la Divisione Pace e diritti umani (DPDU) e la Segreteria di Stato della migrazione (SEM) collaborano per raggiungere gli obiettivi della cooperazione internazionale svizzera in quest’area.

La DSC si concentra su quattro assi di intervento:

  1. invio di contributi in denaro e in natura alle organizzazioni umanitarie e di sviluppo
  2. interventi diretti
  3. distacco di esperte ed esperti del Corpo svizzero di Aiuto umanitario (CSA) presso agenzie dell’ONU
  4. promozione del coordinamento internazionale e della diplomazia umanitaria

Il lavoro della DPDU consiste nel mettere a disposizione di partner multilaterali e bilaterali le proprie competenze attraverso il Pool di esperti per la promozione civile della pace o il proprio personale, nel facilitare o ospitare dialoghi e nel contribuire alla costruzione di capacità direttamente o tramite le ONG. La DSU offre inoltre supporto tecnico o finanziario a ONG nazionali e internazionali.

I partner chiave della Svizzera nella regione sono:

  • attori nazionali e locali nei Paesi interessati
  • organizzazioni internazionali: Comitato internazionale della Croce Rossa (CICR) ecc.
  • organizzazioni multilaterali: Ufficio per il coordinamento degli affari umanitari (OCHA), Alto Commissario delle Nazioni Unite per i rifugiati (ACNUR), Fondo delle Nazioni Unite per l'infanzia (UNICEF), Agenzia delle Nazioni Unite per il soccorso e l’occupazione dei profughi palestinesi nel Vicino Oriente (UNRWA), Ufficio dell’inviato speciale delle Nazioni Unite per la Siria, Programma delle Nazioni Unite per lo sviluppo (PNUS) ecc.
  • organizzazioni locali della società civile
  • ONG svizzere e internazionali, tra cui Terre des hommes e MEDAIR

Progetti Iraq

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Supporting displacement-affected communities to access essential services and achieve durable solutions in Diyala and Ninewa governorates, Iraq

15.04.2023 - 14.04.2025

Although the Islamic State (IS) was defeated territorially more than five years ago, 2.5 million people in Iraq are in need of humanitarian assistance. This project aims to address key protection issues, such as lack of access to civil legal documents, in displacement-affected communities in Diyala and Ninewa governorates. The goal is to achieve durable solutions through access to essential services and handover to national agencies through capacity building and advocacy.


Contribution to UNHCR Programme Budget 2023-2024 (earmarked)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNHCR is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners due to its unique mandate by the General Assembly of United Nations to provide protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, refugee returnees, and stateless persons. The strategic direction 2022-26 concretise the overall mandate of UNHCR for the upcoming years. Contributing to these directions allows Switzerland to achieve in particular the human development goal defined in the Dispatch to Parliament on International Cooperation for 2021-24.

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Progetti Libano

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Contribution to UNICEF Transition and Resilience Education Fund (TREF)

01.07.2023 - 31.12.2024

Switzerland’s contribution to UNICEF’s Transition and Resilience Education Fund (TREF) in Lebanon ensures access to relevant quality public education for the most vulnerable children of all nationalities to avoid the scenario of a lost generation after 4 years of disrupted education. Amidst Lebanon’s economic crisis, TREF further contributes to improving the governance, efficiency, inclusiveness, and overall resilience of Lebanon public education system.


Program Contribution for Fondation Terre des hommes 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

The program of the Terre des hommes Foundation (TdhF) aims to sustainably reduce child mortality and morbidity and to secure access to health, sanitation and clean water for mothers and children (0-18 years) in severe poverty. Children in contexts of migration, conflict and disasters, and child victims of violence are better protected. International standards in child-friendly justice are promoted. Humanitarian interventions in fragile contexts, combined with poverty reduction and sustainable development are promoted through innovative work with children and youths.


Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region and its role in providing services and humanitarian assistance to people in need. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to 5.8 million registered Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to vulnerable refugees.


Contribution to UNHCR Programme Budget 2023-2024 (earmarked)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNHCR is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners due to its unique mandate by the General Assembly of United Nations to provide protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, refugee returnees, and stateless persons. The strategic direction 2022-26 concretise the overall mandate of UNHCR for the upcoming years. Contributing to these directions allows Switzerland to achieve in particular the human development goal defined in the Dispatch to Parliament on International Cooperation for 2021-24.


LEB/JOR DANIDA - Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2026

In Lebanon and Jordan, the protracted refugee crisis, structural fragility, political and economic crises, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to increased poverty and unemployment, especially among youth and women. Switzerland will support vulnerable communities in both countries to access their rights, enjoy increased safety and enhance their self-reliance through a combination of livelihoods support, protection, research and advocacy contributing to progress towards durable and sustainable solutions.


LEB Access and Quality Education for refugee and vulnerable host community children

01.10.2021 - 30.09.2024

The education sector in Lebanon is facing multiple crises, leading to the discontinuity of learning for many children. Switzerland’s contribution to Plan International and Save the Children will provide children in the Bekaa and Baalbek-Hermel governorates with improved access to and retention in quality, safe and inclusive education. The project follows a triple nexus approach by considering immediate humanitarian needs and aiming at the reintegration of out-of-school children while fostering social cohesion in a context of mounting tensions. 


Decent Work for Migrants in the Middle East

15.07.2019 - 31.03.2024

This program contributes to decent work opportunities for migrants and refugees in the Middle East which is one of the largest migrant hosting regions globally due to economic demands and displacement from conflict. It complements the focus on Asian migrants with migrants from Africa and seek closer partnership with the private sector. Due to its relevant expertise and experience in decent work and fair recruitment, Switzerland is well placed to contribute to an improved protection and an enhanced wellbeing of migrant workers and self-reliance for refugees, to maximize the productive potential of migration, and to counter irregular and unsafe migration.


LEB Direct Action - contribution to improved access to water and sanitation services in Bekaa Valley

01.10.2015 - 31.12.2020

The delivery of Water and Sanitation services by the Bekaa Water Establishment (BWE) has been partly disrupted since the massive arrival of refugees from Syria, due to a high demand on an establishment whose structure and daily operation procedures are inefficient. SDC intends to support the much needed development of the BWE to improve the quality of its services to all, Lebanese host communities as well as refugee populations.

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Contribution to UNICEF Transition and Resilience Education Fund (TREF)

01.07.2023 - 31.12.2024

Switzerland’s contribution to UNICEF’s Transition and Resilience Education Fund (TREF) in Lebanon ensures access to relevant quality public education for the most vulnerable children of all nationalities to avoid the scenario of a lost generation after 4 years of disrupted education. Amidst Lebanon’s economic crisis, TREF further contributes to improving the governance, efficiency, inclusiveness, and overall resilience of Lebanon public education system.


Program Contribution for Fondation Terre des hommes 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

The program of the Terre des hommes Foundation (TdhF) aims to sustainably reduce child mortality and morbidity and to secure access to health, sanitation and clean water for mothers and children (0-18 years) in severe poverty. Children in contexts of migration, conflict and disasters, and child victims of violence are better protected. International standards in child-friendly justice are promoted. Humanitarian interventions in fragile contexts, combined with poverty reduction and sustainable development are promoted through innovative work with children and youths.


Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region and its role in providing services and humanitarian assistance to people in need. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to 5.8 million registered Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to vulnerable refugees.


Contribution to UNHCR Programme Budget 2023-2024 (earmarked)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNHCR is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners due to its unique mandate by the General Assembly of United Nations to provide protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, refugee returnees, and stateless persons. The strategic direction 2022-26 concretise the overall mandate of UNHCR for the upcoming years. Contributing to these directions allows Switzerland to achieve in particular the human development goal defined in the Dispatch to Parliament on International Cooperation for 2021-24.


LEB/JOR DANIDA - Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2026

In Lebanon and Jordan, the protracted refugee crisis, structural fragility, political and economic crises, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to increased poverty and unemployment, especially among youth and women. Switzerland will support vulnerable communities in both countries to access their rights, enjoy increased safety and enhance their self-reliance through a combination of livelihoods support, protection, research and advocacy contributing to progress towards durable and sustainable solutions.


LEB Access and Quality Education for refugee and vulnerable host community children

01.10.2021 - 30.09.2024

The education sector in Lebanon is facing multiple crises, leading to the discontinuity of learning for many children. Switzerland’s contribution to Plan International and Save the Children will provide children in the Bekaa and Baalbek-Hermel governorates with improved access to and retention in quality, safe and inclusive education. The project follows a triple nexus approach by considering immediate humanitarian needs and aiming at the reintegration of out-of-school children while fostering social cohesion in a context of mounting tensions. 


Decent Work for Migrants in the Middle East

15.07.2019 - 31.03.2024

This program contributes to decent work opportunities for migrants and refugees in the Middle East which is one of the largest migrant hosting regions globally due to economic demands and displacement from conflict. It complements the focus on Asian migrants with migrants from Africa and seek closer partnership with the private sector. Due to its relevant expertise and experience in decent work and fair recruitment, Switzerland is well placed to contribute to an improved protection and an enhanced wellbeing of migrant workers and self-reliance for refugees, to maximize the productive potential of migration, and to counter irregular and unsafe migration.


LEB Direct Action - contribution to improved access to water and sanitation services in Bekaa Valley

01.10.2015 - 31.12.2020

The delivery of Water and Sanitation services by the Bekaa Water Establishment (BWE) has been partly disrupted since the massive arrival of refugees from Syria, due to a high demand on an establishment whose structure and daily operation procedures are inefficient. SDC intends to support the much needed development of the BWE to improve the quality of its services to all, Lebanese host communities as well as refugee populations.

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Progetti Siria

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Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region and its role in providing services and humanitarian assistance to people in need. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to 5.8 million registered Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to vulnerable refugees.


Contribution to UNHCR Programme Budget 2023-2024 (earmarked)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNHCR is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners due to its unique mandate by the General Assembly of United Nations to provide protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, refugee returnees, and stateless persons. The strategic direction 2022-26 concretise the overall mandate of UNHCR for the upcoming years. Contributing to these directions allows Switzerland to achieve in particular the human development goal defined in the Dispatch to Parliament on International Cooperation for 2021-24.

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Progetti Giordania

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System Strengthening Partnership Programme of the Ministry of Education Jordan and through UNESCO

01.07.2023 - 31.12.2025

In Jordan, the access to inclusive, protective quality education for vulnerable young people is impacted by natural and human-made hazards, including the protracted Syria crisis and climate change. Switzerland’s contribution to UNESCO for the System Strengthening Partnership Programme of the Ministry of Education enhances governance for evidence-based and crisis-sensitive education planning and delivery, as per Jordan’s Education Strategic Plan 2018-2025.


Sanitation Solutions for underserved Communities in Jordan

01.06.2023 - 31.05.2026

Switzerland will build a decentralised wastewater treatment plant in Azraq. Proven Swiss know-how in wastewater management will be applied to increase the efficiency of the treatment plant and to demonstrate how wastewater can be converted into physical and financial resources. The chosen approach for reducing freshwater consumption in agriculture by replacing it with safely treated waste water, in one of the most water-scarce countries, will be promoted based on the implementation of this flagship project.


Enhancing Protection and Justice for Vulnerable Children and Youth in Jordan

01.02.2023 - 31.12.2025

Children are among the most affected by multiple crisis in Jordan. The holistic child protection intervention proposed by Terre des hommes (Tdh) addresses and responds to the complex and intertwined protection needs of the most vulnerable children and youth in Jordan. It links quality of services with institutionalcapacity building and advocacy, thereby fostering a right-based and more sustainable child protection system and addressing hindering social norms in a comprehensive way.


JOR NRC Safe and Inclusive Schools (SIS) Programme

01.02.2023 - 31.12.2025

Switzerland aims to reduce barriers to sustainable solutions for children and adolescents through education programming in Jordan. With the project planned initiatives, capacity strengthening, evidence-based research and training, the school community will be mobilized for positive action within their schools and the improved knowledge and practices will increase the overall quality of teaching and learning, which in turn will improve retention rates in formal schools.


Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2023-2024

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region and its role in providing services and humanitarian assistance to people in need. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to 5.8 million registered Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to vulnerable refugees.


JOR Medair: Social protection program towards improving resilience of refugees and vulnerable Jordanians

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2025

The project initiates a third phase during which Medair Jordan will continue to reach new households in Amman, Irbid and Mafraq with case management and cash for protection, including emergency cash assistance, while focusing on livelihoods solutions to improve the resilience of refugees and vulnerable Jordanians. The project will also build and strengthen the institutional capacities of local actors to provide social protection services through coordination and experience and knowledge exchange.


Contribution to UNHCR Programme Budget 2023-2024 (earmarked)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2024

UNHCR is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners due to its unique mandate by the General Assembly of United Nations to provide protection and assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, refugee returnees, and stateless persons. The strategic direction 2022-26 concretise the overall mandate of UNHCR for the upcoming years. Contributing to these directions allows Switzerland to achieve in particular the human development goal defined in the Dispatch to Parliament on International Cooperation for 2021-24.


JPOs4UN Programme 2023-2028

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2028

The JPOs4UN programme aims at increasing the presence of Switzerland in the UN by augmenting the number of Swiss nationals working in SDC priority UN organizations. Switzerland directly funds partner humanitarian UN organizations to hire 11 Swiss young professionals on a three-year Junior Programme Officer contract; the Swiss foundation CINFO provides administrative support and career counselling. Swiss nationals add to a qualified and diverse UN workforce to implement the Agenda 2030.


LEB/JOR DANIDA - Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP)

01.01.2023 - 31.12.2026

In Lebanon and Jordan, the protracted refugee crisis, structural fragility, political and economic crises, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to increased poverty and unemployment, especially among youth and women. Switzerland will support vulnerable communities in both countries to access their rights, enjoy increased safety and enhance their self-reliance through a combination of livelihoods support, protection, research and advocacy contributing to progress towards durable and sustainable solutions.


Water Management and Livelihoods for Underserved Communities in Jordan

01.04.2022 - 31.03.2024

Jordan has attempted to implement water and agricultural management systems and policies in urban areas to face the challenge of limited natural resources. In Zubarieya Village, the community has created an environment where they manage their own ecosystems through a community-based approach. This project will focus on improving and maintaining the water supply system, and support local governance system to ensure proper water management and agriculture systems, protect groundwater and soil, and facilitate sustainable livelihoods.


Decent Work for Migrants in the Middle East

15.07.2019 - 31.03.2024

This program contributes to decent work opportunities for migrants and refugees in the Middle East which is one of the largest migrant hosting regions globally due to economic demands and displacement from conflict. It complements the focus on Asian migrants with migrants from Africa and seek closer partnership with the private sector. Due to its relevant expertise and experience in decent work and fair recruitment, Switzerland is well placed to contribute to an improved protection and an enhanced wellbeing of migrant workers and self-reliance for refugees, to maximize the productive potential of migration, and to counter irregular and unsafe migration.


Urban Planning and Infrastructure in Migration Contexts

01.01.2021 - 30.06.2024

This Project aims at improving access to reliable services and socio-economic opportunities for migrants in urban settlements of supported cities in Myanmar, Egypt, Jordan and Cameroon. It will do so by developing inclusive urban development plans and link necessary economic infrastructure investments to financing in those settlements.

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